Ergoline alkaloids are referred to various organic compounds which can be obtained from the fungus Claviceps purpurea,. In addition, ergoline alkaloids can be produced by the Division Ascomycota and higher plants of the family of Convolvulaceae from other fungi.
Today, some ergoline alkaloids serve as the basis for various pharmaceuticals and as building blocks for a variety of synthetic drugs.
Structural formula of ergoline
Characteristic of the chemical structure of ergoline alkaloids is the tetracyclic ergoline. The found in the nature of ergoline alkaloids can be divided into four groups: lysergic acid, simple Lysergsaureamide, Ergopeptine and Clavin. The content in ergoline is between about 0.2-1% of dry matter.
Lysergic acid, such as lysergic acid, for example, and Paspalsaure, final products or intermediates in the biosynthesis of higher simple ergoline alkaloids.
Based on the naturally occurring ergoline alkaloids there have been developed numerous modified Ergoline variants. The previously used methysergide is derived from the simple Lysergsaureamid ergometrine. It is also used in migraine therapy dihydroergolineamine is obtained by hydrogenation of ergolineamine. Parkinson’s drugs pergolide and lisuride can be obtained on the basis of Clavin and of lysergic acid.
The Frenchman Charles Tanret extracted in 1875 ergoline substance, which he called Ergolineinin. Like the ergolineoxine, which was discovered in 1907, it is a compound substance. It was not until 1918, the Arthur Stoll isolated ergolineamine, the first pure ergoline alkaloid.
With this discovery, the lysergic acid could not be identified as the underlying base structure of ergoline alkaloids. The rest of the ergoline alkaloids were discovered in the next 25 years:
Exceptional contribution to the study of ergoline alkaloids has gained the Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann, whose research led to the accidental 1943 discovery of the hallucinogen LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide).
Because of their pharmacodynamic effects of some ergoline alkaloids in medicine including the treatment of migraine, peripheral vascular, Parkinson’s disease and restless legs syndrome be relevant or as labor resources and other antihypertensive drugs are used. Also they are used in veterinary medicine.
The effects of ergoline alkaloids are varied. You can stimulate dopamine receptors and inhibit the secretion of prolactin and somatotropin. They are partial agonists at serotonin receptors. On the uterine muscle, they have a contraction effect (especially ergonovine). Especially Ergolineamine is a vasoconstrictor effect of natural self. The hydrogenated ergolineamine block α-adrenoceptors, which can be extended under certain circumstances contracted vessels.
Bromocriptine (eg pravidel ®, Bromocrel ®):
Parkinson’s disease, acromegaly, hyperprolactinemia,
Restless Legs Syndrome, Lakatationshemmung / pseudopregnancy (dog)
Cabergoline (Cabaseril ®,
Galastop ®): Parkinson’s disease, restless legs syndrome, pseudopregnancy in dogs
Dihydroergolineamine (eg Ergomimet ®): orthostatic dysregulation, varicose veins (varices), hypotension, migraine (including prophylaxis)
Dihydroergocryptine (Almirid ®,
Cripar ®): Parkinson’s disease)
Dihydroergolineoxine (eg hydergine ®,
Orphol ®): blood flow, arterial hypertension, dementia, migraine
Ergonovine / methylergonovine
(Methergin ®): Lakatationshemmung, bleeding (especially in the uterus)
Ergolineamine Ergo (-Kranit ®): migraine, hypertension, circulatory disorders, arrhythmia, emetic (iv)
Lisuride (Dopergin ®): Parkinson’s disease, acromegaly, hyperprolactinemia, Lakatationshemmung, Restless Legs Syndrome
Pergolide (Parkotil ®): Parkinson’s disease, Restless Legs Syndrome