How avoiding alcohol affects life expectancy

Any adherent of a healthy lifestyle will tell you about the dangers of alcohol. Indeed, alcoholic and theraflu forte beverages have a detrimental effect on the human body, while avoiding alcohol helps to maintain health, feel better and live longer. In support of this, information appeared that reducing the amount of alcohol consumed will help increase life expectancy.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 3 million people worldwide die each year from excessive alcohol consumption. That is, just over 5% of all deaths are associated with alcohol abuse.
Such sad statistics are easily explainable, because there are about 200 diseases and dysfunctions of organs and tissues of the human body caused by the influence of ethanol. Being in a state of alcoholic intoxication, a person has poor control over his actions, can get into a life-threatening situation (fights, traffic accidents, accidents, etc.).
There are about 200 diseases and dysfunctions of organs and tissues of the human body caused by the influence of ethanol.
At the same time, the highest mortality rate from alcohol falls on the working age: in almost 14% of cases, people aged 20–39 become “victims” of alcoholic beverages.

Alcohol and our body
Alcohol affects the health of the entire body. Most of all suffer from its use:
The cardiovascular system. From alcohol, the vessels first expand, then sharply narrow. This helps to reduce their elasticity and atherosclerotic plaques form on them over time. A “blow” to the vessels leads to an increased load on the heart, the organs do not receive a sufficient amount of oxygen and nutrients. With systematic alcohol abuse, the heart undergoes abnormal changes, as a result of which the heart muscle atrophies. As a result, those who drink frequently are diagnosed with diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction.
With systematic alcohol abuse, the heart undergoes abnormal changes, as a result of which the heart muscle atrophies.
Brain and Central Nervous System. Only at the first stages, the drinker feels euphoria, relaxation, he is in high spirits. However, then there is a depletion of the nervous system. Irreversible changes occur in the tissues of the brain, the convolutions are smoothed out, and scars appear. Decreased intellectual abilities, which affects the quality of life. As a result, this leads to both mental (depression, personality disorder, panic attacks, etc.) and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease.
Joints. As a result of alcohol consumption in the human body, inflammatory processes are activated, which are among the first to affect the articular cartilage. Deformation of the joints occurs, eventually becoming chronic. So, drinkers often suffer from arthrosis and arthritis.
Kidneys and liver. These organs suffer from alcohol more than others, since it is through the tissues of the liver and kidneys that all drunk alcohol is filtered. As a result – obesity of the liver and kidneys, cirrhosis, hepatitis, urolithiasis, renal failure.

In the absence of proper treatment, all these diseases will inevitably lead to death.
Alcohol and social environment

In addition to the negative impact on human organs and tissues, alcohol greatly changes the environment and social conditions of life. The social circle is changing, “like-minded people” appear – people who prefer to drink, instead of doing other things (to devote time to family, work, hobbies). All interests begin to revolve around one topic – alcohol. Because of this, there is a discord in the family, a drinker may lose his job, friends. There is a so-called fall on the social ladder, and a person becomes an outcast in his once familiar environment.
This situation inevitably leads to a deterioration in the state of mind. An alcoholic develops anger, irritation, and antisocial behavior, which further pushes people away from him. Against this background, accidents can occur, for example, fights with family, friends or drinking companions, which usually end in failure.
A person in a state of alcoholic intoxication is not able to control his actions and can accidentally cause irreparable harm to himself and those around him. There are frequent accidents caused by drunk drivers.
And if you give up alcohol?

It is logical to assume that if alcohol has a detrimental effect on the entire body, then refusal to drink, on the contrary, will contribute to the preservation of all vital functions. It is for this purpose that most countries, including Russia, are implementing an active anti-alcohol policy.
Guided by the European Action Plan to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol 2012–2020, adopted by WHO, our country is systematically working to create a negative image of a drinking person, to regulate prices for alcoholic beverages, to limit the possibility of buying alcoholic beverages, to increase the literacy of the population relatively healthy lifestyle, screening for diseases associated with alcohol.
The result of the measures taken is presented in the WHO report Alcohol Policy Impact Case Study: The effects of alcohol control measures on mortality and life expectancy in the Russian Federation.
According to the WHO, by 2018, alcohol consumption in our country has decreased significantly (by 43%). The result was an overall decrease in mortality from alcohol abuse. So, compared to 2003, in 2018, male mortality decreased by 39%, and female – by 36%. Life expectancy has also increased: for men it was 68 years, for women – 78 years, which is a historical maximum in Russia.
By 2018, the level of alcohol consumption in our country decreased significantly (by 43%).
A significant role in achieving such high results is played by people themselves, who consciously make a choice in favor of a healthy lifestyle. A WHO study has clearly demonstrated how alcohol restriction affects life expectancy. And with a complete rejection of alcohol, you can achieve even more impressive results.
It must be remembered that behind the generalized figures are the lives of each individual person, and therefore the struggle for life expectancy begins with one small “no” to the offer to drink.


Soviet children’s medicine already paid attention to iron deficiency. Many children’s mothers begged them to eat liver and other products rich in iron. And the iron-containing medication Hematogen, which fortunately resembled the appearance and taste of candy bars, was mandatorily distributed in children’s recreational centers of the USSR. And it was done for a reason. And because our body needs iron for iron health in the truest sense of the word. But how to really recognize iron deficiency and how to avoid adverse effects of this condition? In our material, we will learn the answers. Sometimes the solution to the problem is:

Iron deficiency – the cause of reduced mental development
One of the first places in the structure of childhood pathologies invariably belongs to iron deficiency. According to the report of American experts Micronutrient Initiative, the lack of this substance leads to a decrease in mental development in almost 40% of infants in the world, the health and performance of about 500 million women. And iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is responsible for more than 60,000 infant deaths worldwide every year. Unfortunately, the grim statistics remains unchanged in recent years: disorders associated with iron deficiency affects 1/5-1/6 of the world’s population. And these are predominantly children. But before speaking about the correct evaluation of this phenomenon, it is necessary to say something about the trace element of interest.

Premature infants are susceptible to iron deficiency. But not only
Iron deficiency occurs already in the fetus. The accumulation of trace element occurs mainly during the last two months of prenatal life. This means that all premature infants, as well as those born at term but underweight, have little or no iron depot. A healthy infant’s iron reserve is sufficient for the first few months, and by the end of the first six months it is depleted. Sometimes even, as Professor A.F. Tur pointed out back in the middle of the last century, to the point of complete emptying. It was during this period, the children’s body needs more iron, as it is contained in the protein myoglobin, similar in structure to hemoglobin. Without these substances, normal growth of muscle mass and bone tissue is impossible.

Breast milk and formula do not protect against anemia
Thus, the need for iron is very high, especially when supplies are depleted and the intake from outside, with food, is limited. After all, its main external source – meat food – begins to be eaten no earlier than 6 months. But until then, the baby’s main food is breast milk, and it contains a relatively small amount of iron. Even with the now popular formula feeding, iron absorption is limited.

Up to 3 months of age, the need for iron is low.
To this we should add some more peculiarities. So, from birth to 2.5-3 months, the bone marrow is in a low state of functional activity, and in the child’s blood initially circulate red blood cells formed before birth and have a number of differences. This phenomenon is referred to as a physiological minimum. Such a condition is not yet associated with iron deficiency and, accordingly, does not require recourse to special medications.

Misconceptions about iron deficiency
Just one of the common misconceptions – the attempt to “treat” the physiological minimum – comes from a misunderstanding of these processes and, accordingly, is unsuccessful. Naturally, the bone marrow needs for iron during this period are small. But as the child grows towards the end of the first six months of life, the red sprout of bone marrow is already functioning more actively, and its need for iron increases. At the same time, other expenditures of this trace element increase, as it was presented above, with limited possibilities of intake. This kind of “scissors” means that the child lives on an iron balance of practically zero. The supply he receives with food is immediately incorporated into the metabolic processes, and only gradually, by the age of 1.5-2 years, is the iron depot formed. Mainly in the liver in the form of a compound – ferritin. All these features create the conditions and prerequisites for the fact that it is in early childhood that the iron deficiency state (IDS) occurs. In particular, this condition occurs in rickets, pre- and intrapartum blood loss, any type of dystrophy, protein-energy deficiency, acute digestive disorders, repeated acute inflammatory conditions, etc.

When everything is missing
There is a concept of “poly-deficiency states”, among which iron deficiency plays a leading role. Often, iron deficiency does not initially manifest itself as iron deficiency anemia, but as a precursor, referred to as latent iron deficiency (LID), which accounts for up to 70% of this deficiency. And the task of the pediatrician is to diagnose this stage of absolute iron deficiency. According to Russian authors, every third child in Russia suffers from latent iron deficiency. If LAD is not diagnosed and treated in time, sooner or later, sometimes after several years, the growing organism will develop iron deficiency. In such cases, there may be a false explanation of its cause as a consequence of frequent respiratory or other acute illnesses, dietary disorders, etc., leading to inadequate treatment tactics.

The iron cycle
What are the characteristics of iron metabolism in older children? By the age of two and beyond, the iron depot is already present. It circulates in the body according to the principle of “closed system”. With aging and the natural destruction of cells, especially red blood cells, iron is released and recirculated to synthesize new compounds, primarily hemoglobin. Part of the iron goes to the depot, exchanging for an equivalent amount of it, which also corresponds to the “vicious circle” principle. The amount of this trace element, totaling up to 5-6 grams in adults and children of the older age group, is excreted from the body. The same amount, respectively, is absorbed in the intestine from food. Given this stability of iron circulation, it is conceivable that eating disorders alone as the sole cause rarely lead to the development of iron deficiency.

There may be more than one cause of impaired iron metabolism
More often the lack of nutrition, as a very relevant factor, is combined with gastrointestinal pathology, blood loss, endocrine system disorders, and previously untreated LDH . The latter factor is increasingly becoming a very significant cause of anemia in adolescents, as well as in pregnant women, when iron requirements increase significantly. Hence, there is an important conclusion about the need for a more comprehensive evaluation of older children with iron deficiencies to determine the cause of this phenomenon. Only a combination of treatment and elimination of concomitant causative factors is the necessary reliable basis for the elimination of this pathology.

Iron deficiency: how to avoid it?
The abundance of iron-containing drugs and means of prevention sometimes makes it difficult to choose the best choice in each case. In addition, there is the problem of parents being poorly informed about the peculiarities of iron deficiency in a child’s growing body. Treatment of children with iron preparations, of course, should be prescribed by a physician, who accurately perform all the necessary preliminary studies, selection of the optimal remedy, dosage, duration of treatment and methods of monitoring its effectiveness. If the treatment of WDD should be prescribed and supervised by a doctor, the prevention of this pathology can be carried out by the parents of the child, which requires compliance with a number of simple rules and principles. The first prerequisite is a full, age-appropriate diet, including a sufficient amount of animal protein – meat food – as well as fresh fruit and vegetables. And for infants receiving nutritional formulas, these should be enriched with iron, i.e. contain more than 7 mg of iron in a liter. Also, the prevention of iron deficiency should include the use of iron preparations, which should be used preparations (Maltofer, ferrumlek, ferlatum) for a course of two months, in the absence of exacerbation of other diseases in a dose half as much as the therapeutic.

Cough. What is important to know?

Coughing is one of the most important defense reflexes. It is only a symptom, not an independent disease. Foreign particles and microorganisms that come in with inhaled air are deposited on the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and subsequently removed from the respiratory tract with mucus. Sometimes this medication helps with coughs:

There are many reasons

for coughing, among them ARI, infections, post nasal congestion, bronchial asthma, GERD, passive smoking, environmental pollution,

psychogenic factor, etc.

Cough is a frequent and in the vast majority of cases an obligatory symptom in various respiratory pathologies. However, only stating the symptom of cough has no independent diagnostic value. A detailed characterization of cough with indication of frequency, intensity, timbre, frequency, presence and properties of sputum and other clinical peculiarities is obligatory. Such detailed analysis allows the identification of specific features of the cough characteristic of certain diseases and determines the tactics of treatment of the patient.

remember that coughing is a protective reflex, so it is extremely important not to suppress it without identifying and eliminating the cause! For example, residual cough after an acute respiratory infection can persist for up to a month without requiring treatment. Parents should pay attention to the duration, nature of the cough, changes during the time of day and season, associated symptoms, risk of secondhand smoke, and past allergies.

If the cough is acute, it is important to see if it is related to an infection (fever, catarrhal syndrome). In a child with signs of acute respiratory viral infection (ARI), hoarseness of the voice, difficulty breathing indicates a throat infection with possible risk of asphyxiation (croup). Also, the key task in the presence of signs of an acute respiratory infection is to rule out pneumonia.

The cough can change from dry to wet cough or vice versa, but both are normal stages in the course of an acute

Small children have a hard time coughing up sputum, so it is not recommended to us

respiratory infection.


e mucolytics, expectorants and cough suppressants, especially in children under 3 years old, or even under 6 years old! Medicines with a herbal component carry the risk of allergic reactions.

The best choices for helping a child with a cough during an acute respiratory infection remain:

Drinking frequently
Airing the room regularly and keeping the air at an optimal humidity level (40-60%)
Nasal cleansing and the use of a saline solution to moisten the nose
It is important for the child to move in order to get the phlegm out of the lungs, so if he/she feels well he/she does not need to go to bed!
Respiratory exercises and percussion massage

What is Pyrinagil

Use Pyrinagil 100% as directed by your doctor. Check the label on the medicine for exact dosing instructions.


Use Pyrinagil 100% as directed by your doctor. Check the label on
Use Pyrinagil 100% as directed by your doctor. Check the label on

An indication is a term used for the list of condition or symptom or illness for which the medicine is prescribed or used by the patient. For example, acetaminophen or paracetamol is used for fever by the patient, or the doctor prescribes it for a headache or body pains. Now fever, headache and body pains are the indications of paracetamol.

For use in the temporary relief of various forms of pain, inflammation associated with various conditions (including rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, osteoarthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis), and is also used to reduce the risk of death and/or nonfatal myocardial infarction in patients with a previous infarction or unstable angina pectoris. (Acute coronary syndrome; Arthritis; Colorectal cancer; Headache; Juvenile idiopathic arthritis; Migraine; Pain; Pericarditis; Polycythemia vera; Rheumatoid arthritis; Stroke; Systemic lupus erythematosus; Thromboembolism; Transient ischemic attacks; cardiovascular disease; cardiovascular event; colorectal adenomas; kawasaki disease; preeclampsia; spondyloarthropathies;)


  • Take Pyrinagil 100% by mouth with or without food. If stomach upset occurs, take with food to reduce stomach irritation.
  • Take Pyrinagil 100% with a full glass of water (8 oz/240 mL).
  • Use Pyrinagil 100% exactly as directed on the package, unless instructed differently by your doctor. If you are taking Pyrinagil 100% without a prescription, follow any warnings and precautions on the label.
  • If you take bisphosphonates (eg, alendronate), cation exchange resins (eg, sodium polystyrene), cephalosporins (eg, cefpodoxime), imidazole antifungals (eg, ketoconazole), penicillamine, quinolone antibiotics (eg, ciprofloxacin), or tetracycline antibiotics (eg, doxycycline), do not take them at the same time you take Pyrinagil 100%. Talk with your doctor about how you should take these other medicines along with Pyrinagil 100%.
  • If you miss a dose of Pyrinagil 100% and you are taking it regularly, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Pyrinagil 100%.


There are specific as well as general uses of a drug or medicine. A medicine can be used to prevent a disease, treat a disease over a period or cure a disease. It can also be used to treat the particular symptom of the disease. The drug use depends on the form the patient takes it. It may be more useful in injection form or sometimes in tablet form.

Aspirin is used to reduce fever and relieve mild to moderate pain from conditions such as muscle aches, toothaches, common cold, and headaches. It may also be used to reduce pain and swelling in conditions such as arthritis. Aspirin is known as a salicylate and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It works by blocking a certain natural substance in your body to reduce pain and swelling. Consult your doctor before treating a child younger than 12 years.

Your doctor may direct you to take a low dose of aspirin to prevent blood clots. This effect reduces the risk of stroke and heart attack. If you have recently had surgery on clogged arteries (such as bypass surgery, carotid endarterectomy, coronary stent), your doctor may direct you to use aspirin in low doses as a “blood thinner” to prevent blood clots.

Thanks to good health, you are ready for new feats, and feats at a new job can be done in large numbers, because fresh and relevant vacancies can be found here


Epitomax, indications for treatment

Antiepileptic drug of the group of sulfate-substituted monosaccharides. Epitomax reduces the frequency of action potentials characteristic of the neuron in the state of persistent depolarization, indicating that the blocking action of Epitomax on sodium channels depends on the state of the neuron. Epitomax potentiates GABA activity against several GABA receptor subtypes (including GABA receptors) and modulates the activity of GABA receptors themselves, prevents kainate activation of kainate/AMPK receptor sensitivity to glutamate and does not affect N-methyl-D-aspartate activity against NMDA receptors.

Indications for use of Epitomax

Epitomax, indications for treatment

Partial or generalized tonic-clonic seizures in adults and children (as monotherapy or in combination with other anticonvulsants); seizures associated with Lennox-Gasto syndrome in adults and children (as adjunctive therapy).

Side effects

Ataxia, concentration disorder, confusion, dizziness, fatigue, paresthesia, somnolence, thought disorder, rarely – agitation, amnesia, anorexia, aphasia, depression, emotional lability, speech disorders, diplopia, nystagmus, visual impairment, perversion of taste; in isolated cases – increased liver function tests, hepatitis, liver failure (when concomitantly used with other drugs), rarely – nausea, nephrolithiasis, weight loss.


Epitomax, indications for treatment

Increased manifestation of side effects is possible.
Treatment: gastric lavage; symptomatic therapy if necessary. The use of activated charcoal is not shown, since it has been experimentally established that activated charcoal does not adsorb Epitomax. An effective way of eliminating Epitomax from the body is hemodialysis.

Withdrawal of the drug

Antiepileptic drugs, including Epitomax, should be withdrawn gradually to minimize the possibility of increased seizure frequency, reducing the dose by 50-100 mg at 1 week intervals when treating epilepsy and by 25-50 mg when using Epitomax to prevent migraine. In children, withdrawal within 2 to 8 weeks. If rapid withdrawal of Epitomax is medically necessary, appropriate monitoring of the patient’s condition is recommended. The main route of excretion of Epitomax and its metabolites in unchanged form is excretion by the kidneys. The rate of renal excretion depends on renal function and is independent of age. In patients with moderate or severe renal impairment, it may take 10-15 days to reach equilibrium plasma concentrations compared to 4-8 days in patients with normal renal function.

As with other antiepileptic drugs, the dosage regimen of Epitomax should be guided by therapeutic efficacy (i.e. the degree of seizure frequency reduction, absence of side effects) and should take into account that in patients with impaired renal function a longer time may be required for each dose to establish equilibrium concentrations of Epitomax in blood plasma.

Herpes zoster

Basic information about the disease

The herpes zoster (łac. herpes zoster) is the reactivation (activation) of a latent virus infection caused by the varicella zoster virus and the herpes zoster virus (VZV, nowadays called human herpes virus – 3 – HHV-3), the same virus that causes varicella smallpox at the first infection. Thus, the disease can develop in all people who have had chickenpox in the past, regardless of whether the course of chickenpox was mild or severe. Herpes zoster is manifested by the unilateral appearance of painful, characteristically located vesicles on skin areas invaded by a single spine, called dermatoms. The appearance of skin changes is usually preceded by burning, itching, tingling sensations and pain that can persist throughout the disease. Herpes zoster is contagious to others. After contact with a patient, people exposed to the infection may get chickenpox.

How does the herpes zoster develop?

Herpes zoster

The cause of herpes zoster is the varicella virus and the herpes zoster virus (VZV), which causes varicella after initial infection. After healing from chickenpox, the VZV remains in the dorsal ganglia in a dormant inactive form, called the latency of the virus. Due to reasons that have not yet been fully discovered, most likely due to a decrease in specific cellular immunity, the VZV virus multiplies and reactivates many years later, which is clinically manifested by herpes zoster. The above-mentioned decrease in immunity may be the result of a gradual loss of immunity associated with age and time since the primary infection, associated diseases that adversely affect immunity or immunosuppressants.

What factors contribute to the onset of herpes zoster?

Herpes zoster may only occur in people who have previously been infected with varicella virus, more often due to natural infection, and who have contracted varicella or less often due to chickenpox vaccination. Age is a factor in the development of herpes zoster. The risk of herpes zoster increases rapidly after 50 years. After 85 years of age, the risk of herpes zoster is 50%. Similarly, along with age, the risk of postherpetic neuralgia increases dramatically. Therefore, elderly patients with herpes zoster may need hospitalization to treat complications of the disease, including neuralgia. Risk factors for herpes zoster include diseases that reduce cellular immunity, such as disseminated tumors, including leukaemia and lymphoma, infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and immunosuppressive therapy (glucocorticosteroids, drugs prescribed after organ transplantation). The severe course of herpes zoster is particularly prone to patients after bone marrow transplantation, as well as parenchymatous organs (kidneys, heart, liver and lungs) that take immunosuppressive therapy, including glucocorticosteroids. The risk factor is the treatment of cancer with radiotherapy or chemotherapy.

What is the risk of herpes zoster development?

Herpes zoster

According to current data from the United States, almost one in three people will develop a herpes zoster during their lifetime. Anyone with chickenpox, including children, may develop the disease, but the risk of the disease increases significantly with age. In practice, herpes zoster disease is an adult disease, and about half of all cases of herpes zoster develop after 60 years. As a rule, there is one episode of herpes zoster in life. In rare cases, especially if there are favorable factors, herpes zoster may occur two or more times.

Treatment of herpes zoster

Antiviral drugs are used in the treatment, which reduce the intensity and duration of symptoms of the disease. A prerequisite for efficacy is the early start of treatment, as soon as possible after the rash. Antiviral treatment has not been proven to prevent the most important complication – post-herpetic neuralgia. Pain manifestations are treated symptomatically.

Antiviral treatment

Anti-viral treatment reduces the intensity and duration of herpes zoster symptoms. Several antiviral drugs (acyclovir, valacyclovir, famcyclovir) are available that can reduce the duration and intensity. A prerequisite for effective treatment is its early onset – as soon as possible after a rash.

Popular Herpes questions

Can I still have sexual intercourse as a carrier of herpes?

Popular Herpes questions

If you are a carrier of herpes, you should talk to your sexual partner(s) and inform him or her about this and the risks involved. Condom use can help reduce this risk, but it will not eliminate the risk completely. The presence of ulcers or other symptoms of herpes may increase the risk of the disease spreading. Even if you do not have any symptoms, you can still infect your sexual partners. You may have doubts about how this will affect their general health, sex life and relationships. The best thing for you to do is to talk about it with your doctor, but it is also important to realize that although herpes cannot be cured, the disease can be controlled with medication. Daily suppressive therapy (ie, the daily use of antiviral drugs) for herpes can also reduce the risk of genital herpes spreading to your sexual partner. Be sure to discuss your treatment options with your healthcare provider. Since a diagnosis of genital herpes may affect your attitude toward your current or future sexual relationship, it is important to understand how to talk to your sexual partners about STIs.

What is the relationship between genital herpes and HIV?

Popular Herpes questions

A herpes infection can lead to ulcers, or damage to the skin or mucous membranes of the mouth, vagina and rectum. This increases the risk of HIV entering the body. Even without visible ulcers, the presence of genital herpes increases the number of CD4 cells (cells that HIV uses to penetrate the body) found in the mucous membrane of the genital organs. When a person is infected with both HIV and genital herpes, it is more likely that HIV will spread to an HIV-infected uninfected sexual partner during sexual intercourse with their partner, vagina or rectum.

How can I reduce the risk of contracting genital herpes?

The only way to avoid STIs is not to have vaginal, anal or oral sex.

If you are sexually active, then to reduce the risk of genital herpes infection:

  • Maintain a long-term mutual monogamous relationship with a partner who is not infected with an STI (i.e., one who has been tested and has a negative STI test result);
  • use latex condoms correctly each time you have sex.

Keep in mind that not all herpes ulcers occur in areas covered by a latex condom. In addition, the herpes virus can be excreted (released) from skin areas where there is no visible herpes ulcer. For these reasons, condoms can not fully protect you from infection with herpes. If you are in a relationship with a person who has genital herpes, you can reduce the risk of contracting this disease if you are in a relationship with someone who has genital herpes:

  • Your partner takes herpes medication every day. This is something your partner should discuss with his doctor.
  • You avoid vaginal, anal or oral sex when your partner has herpes symptoms (i.e. when your partner has an outbreak).

How often does genital herpes occur?

Genital herpes is a common occurrence in the United States. More than one in six people between the ages of 14 and 49 are carriers of genital herpes.

What is oral herpes?

Mouth herpes is usually caused by HSV-1 and can cause a cold or herpes fever in or around the mouth. However, most people have no symptoms. Most people with oral herpes were infected as children or young people from non-sexual contact with saliva.

A few questions and answers about herpes

I am pregnant. How can genital herpes affect my child?

If you are pregnant and are a carrier of genital herpes, it is very important for you to attend prenatal examination groups. Tell your doctor if you have ever had symptoms of genital herpes or if you have been diagnosed with genital herpes. Also tell your doctor if you have had contact with a person who has genital herpes. There are several studies that show that genital herpes infection can lead to miscarriage or premature birth. A herpes infection can be transmitted from you to your unborn child before birth, but most often during childbirth. It can lead to a deadly infection in your child (so-called neonatal herpes). It is important that during pregnancy you avoid herpes infection. If you are pregnant and have genital herpes, you may be offered herpes medicine at the end of your pregnancy. This drug can reduce the risk of signs or symptoms of genital herpes during childbirth. At the time of childbirth, your doctor should carefully examine you for the presence of herpes ulcers. If at the time of delivery you have symptoms of herpes, you usually have a C-section.

How can I know that I am a carrier of genital herpes?

A few questions and answers about herpes

Most people suffering from genital herpes have no symptoms at all or have minor symptoms. You may not notice slight symptoms or may mistake them for another skin condition such as an acne or an ingrown hair. Therefore, most people who are carriers of herpes do not know about it. Foci of herpes usually occur in the form of one or more vesicles on the genitals, in the rectum or mouth, or around them. The bubbles burst and leave painful ulcers, which may take several weeks or more to heal. These symptoms are sometimes called “disease outbreaks”. When someone first has an outbreak, they may also have flu-like symptoms, such as fever, body pain or swelling of the tonsils. People who experience an initial herpes outbreak may experience repeated outbreaks, especially if they are infected with HSV-2. Recurring outbreaks are usually shorter and less severe than the first outbreak. Although the infection remains in your body throughout your life, the number of outbreaks may decrease over the following years. You should see a doctor if you notice any of these symptoms, or if your partner has an STD or symptoms of an STI. Symptoms of an STD may include an unusual ulcer, genital discharge with a bad smell, burning when urinating or bleeding between periods.

How will my doctor know that I am a carrier of herpes?

A few questions and answers about herpes

Your doctor can diagnose genital herpes just by looking at your symptoms. Doctors can also take a sample from the ulcer(s) and analyze it. In some cases, a blood test can be used to find antibodies to herpes. Talk honestly and openly with your doctor and ask if you need to be examined for herpes or other STIs.
Note. A blood test for herpes may help determine if you have a herpes infection. It will not show who infected you or how long you were infected.

Is it possible to cure herpes?

There is no cure for herpes. However, there are medicines that can prevent or reduce outbreaks. Some of these herpes medications can be taken daily, making it less likely that you will transmit the infection to your sexual partner(s).

What happens if I do not get treatment?

Genital herpes can lead to painful ulcers in the genital area, and in people with a weakened immune system it can be severe. If you touch the ulcers or fluid from the wound, you can transfer herpes to another part of your body such as your eyes. To prevent herpes from spreading to another part of your body, do not touch the ulcers or fluid. If you have touched an ulcer or liquid to avoid the infection spreading, wash your hands immediately and thoroughly. If you are pregnant, you and your future child may have problems.

Dr. Denis Slinkin

Chronic migraine

Chronic migraine affects 14% of people, women are most exposed to the disease. The first attacks may be disturbing at the age of 10-20 years, most intensely in 30-45 years old. After 55 years, symptoms may persist in individuals.

What is a migraine

It is a primary form of headache that has a unilateral attacking pulsating character. The seizure lasts a minimum of 4 hours and a maximum of 72 hours. Patients experience nausea up to vomiting and are more sensitive to light, sound, so says Dr. Denis Slinkin.

Symptoms of migraine

Dr. Denis Slinkin

The probable cause of frequent headaches (more than 15 days per month) may be in chronic migraine.

There are 3 options for symptomatology.

Migraine without aura. Headache (HB) occurs eight days or more per month, and the patient has at least two of the following four symptoms:

  • pulsating;
  • unilateral;
  • moderate or intense;
  • intensifying under load.

Plus at least one of the following two:

  • pulsating;
  • one-sided;
  • moderate or intensive;
  • boosting at loads.

This variant of symptomatology is typical for 80% of patients with this disease.

Migraine with aura.headache is fixed eight or more days a month and starts with the so-called aura (foreshadowing) lasting 5-60 minutes, so says Dr. Denis Slinkin.

Patients experience:

  • visual disturbances;
  • dizziness;
  • olfactory hallucinations;
  • shivers or numbness in the extremities;
  • speech problems.

If there are more than five cases of migraine without aura or with aura per month, the disease is likely to be chronic.

The duration of attacks plays an important role in determining symptoms. In migraine, the duration of GB is at least 4 hours provided that you take pain medication that has no or no effect.

Dr. Denis Slinkin says that with an attack duration of less than 4 hours, it is likely that the cause is not migraine. See a professional neurologist to make the right diagnosis.